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Crosscompiling and the EOCP

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Overview

For our project, we heavily leverage the buildroot project. Buildroot is a set of installation and configuration scripts which builds a usable root image of a linux filesystem according to builder configuration preferences. Those preferences include,

  • Processor architecture (i.e., ARCH) type (e.g., x86, PowerPC, ARM, sparc)
  • Processor subarchitecture (i.e., SUBARCH) type (e.g., PentiumPro, Xeon, X-Scale)
  • Kernel version
  • uClibc version
  • Binutils version
  • GCC contents (e.g., ada, java, c, c++) and version
  • A GCC crosscompiler (i.e., development toolchain, or just toolchain)

Crosscompiling

In order to build this image, it necessarily builds a boostrap GCC version. Using this version, which is made to run on the host machine and compiles code to execute on the host machine, a new compiler which is made to run on the host machine and compile code to execute on the target machine is built. This second compiler is the crosscompiler.

Building a crosscompiler is usually tedious work, but buildroot has (mostly) solved these problems, and places them in a nice package.

Using buildroot crosscompilers with the EOCP

The first thing to do is to build the buildroot toolchain for your target architecture, version, and other preferences. In the escher CVS tree there is a folder called crosscompile in which this should take place. Once this is done, you should take advantage of compiler setup scripts which are distributed throughout the installation (as appropriate) for individual builds. These scripts should have the proper setup variables, flags, and other information done so you can build and deploy th

Building a generic crosscompiler toolchain for the xscale subarchitecture of arm

Currently building and using the crosscompiler toolchain is only supported using linux, unix, or cygwin interfaces. However, the code itself, if built in the Visual Studio environment, should also execute correctly. The EOCP core developers generally do major development and testing with the Visual Studio builds, and deploy (with regression tests, of course) on linux/unix platforms.

Enter the $ESCHER CVS directory. In this example, that is /usr/local/escher

[sprinkle@ransom ~]
$ cd /usr/local/escher/crosscompile

[sprinkle@ransom /usr/local/escher/crosscompile]
$ ./checkout xscale

This will take a long, long, long time. If you are building for the first time on your machine, then a long time will be taken to download the source code and tarballs of the components which are chosen. To speed this up for future compiles, obtain a copy of the dl directory from another developer (or from a weblink, if we post it) to get the files from a dependably fast server at Berkeley. If you place this directory in the crosscompile directory, i.e., $ESCHER/crosscompile/dl, then the checkout script will copy those tarballs to the correct directory.

Building a crosscompiler toolchain gumstix

If you are building for the gumstix boards we are using then xscale is the correct crosscompiler to build, but there are some minor kernel differences for which it makes sense to checkout a particular revision of the buildroot chain. In fact, this revision is maintained by the gumstix folks.

[sprinkle@ransom ~]
$ cd /usr/local/escher/crosscompile

[sprinkle@ransom /usr/local/escher/crosscompile]
$ ./checkout gumstix

You will now see a menu which will ask you to choose which revision of the gumstix kernel you would like to build for. Currently, 2.6.11gum is the best choice. Once you choose this, you should see some instructions which will ask you to run a particular make command, with command line parameters that will ensure that the C++ compiler is built. Run those commands, and go grab yourself a cup of coffee, play 18 holes of golf, or embark on another PhD. It takes awhile.

Building a crosscompiler for other architectures

To build for deployment on a powerpc embedded machine you will need to specify different options than during the xscale build. We are currently not using anything like this.

Rebuilding the crosscompiler toolchain

It is possible to rebuild part of the crosscompiler toolchain, or restarting the build if it fails for some reason, simply by re-executing the checkout script.

Selecting the crosscompiler once it is built

A fat lot of good a crosscompiler does if you don't know how to use it! This is one of the most frustrating problems of crosscompiling: making sure that the crosscompiler you built is invoked, and not the default version of C++ which you have on your machine. To streamline this process, we developed a script for escher checkouts which will allow you to select a crosscompiler in the $ESCHER/crosscompiler/ directory tree, and provide you with environment variables which streamline the usage of that compiler.

[sprinkle@ransom ~]
$ cd /usr/local/escher/crosscompile

[sprinkle@ransom /usr/local/escher/crosscompile]
$ source select_crosscompiler

You will be shown a set of choices named buildroot_<crosscompiler>, and be asked to select from one of them. Once you select,

[sprinkle@ransom /usr/local/escher/crosscompile]
$ . setup_crosscompiler
1) buildroot_arm 4) buildroot_gumstix_old
2) buildroot_gumstix_2.6.10gum 5) buildroot_xscale
3) buildroot_gumstix_2.6.11gum
#? 3
Going with buildroot_gumstix_2.6.11gum (3)
build_arm_nofpu
You have now set up the following exported values:
BASECROSS=/usr/local/escher/crosscompile/buildroot_gumstix_2.6.11gum/build_arm_nofpu/staging_dir
CROSSTARGET=arm-linux

Now, use these values when running ./configure in your source tree:
$ pwd
/usr/local/srcdir
$ mkdir arm-linux && cd arm-linux
$ pwd
/usr/local/srcdir/proc-os
$ export PATH=${BASECROSS}/bin:$PATH; ../configure --host=$CROSSTARGET
$ make && make install

Note that you MUST use the ". setup_crosscompiler" or "source setup_crosscompiler" in order to export the environment variables to your current shell. If you fail to do this, then you will wonder why it was that you did not get the right compiler when you run configure. :)

Note also that this method only works with code that is configured using the GNU Autconf, Automake, and Libtool method. For this, we highly recommend the book of that name by Garvy Vaughan, et al.

Testing the crosscompiler

To test the crosscompiler, you can take advantage of the existing tests which live in the Escher CVS repository.

[sprinkle@ransom /usr/local/escher/crosscompile]
$ cd test/HelloWorld

[sprinkle@ransom /usr/local/escher/crosscompile/test/HelloWorld]
$ mkdir build

[sprinkle@ransom /usr/local/escher/crosscompile/test/HelloWorld]
$ sh autogen.sh

This script will autogenerate the source files required to run configure

[sprinkle@ransom /usr/local/escher/crosscompile/test/HelloWorld]
$ cd build

Now, we aim for the crosscompiler. You must first setup your crosscompiler as described here. To test that this is done properly, try echo $BASECROSS && echo $CROSSTARGET from your friendly neighborhood bash prompt.

[sprinkle@ransom /usr/local/escher/crosscompile/test/HelloWorld/build]
$ export PATH=${BASECROSS}/bin:$PATH; ../configure --host=$CROSSTARGET

You should now be confronted by a series of configuration statements, which you have had more than enough of while building previous GNU Autotools programs. Make sure that when looking for arm-linux-g++ it finds something. Once this is done, you should be able to type make in that directory.

[sprinkle@ransom /usr/local/escher/crosscompile/test/HelloWorld/build]
$ make

After this step, you should have a working version of HelloWorld. Working, that is, on another machine! If you try to run it here, you will be subjected to humiliations galore, because it is not compiled for this architecture!!

[sprinkle@ransom /usr/local/escher/crosscompile/test/HelloWorld/build]
$ ls HelloWorld
HelloWorld

Well, there's nothing left to do, but check to make sure that this works on the target machine.

Testing the crosscompiled code

There is a testing machine hooked up to the ransom.eecs box. You can scp your executable to it by something like this:

[sprinkle@ransom /usr/local/escher/crosscompile/test/HelloWorld/build]
$ scp HelloWorld root@gumstix2:/tmp/sprinkle

This will only work if the destination directory exists. Next, ssh to the gumstix2 machine (you can get the root password from sprinkle@EECS).

[sprinkle@ransom /usr/local/escher/crosscompile/test/HelloWorld/build]
$ ssh root@gumstix2

Now that you are on the gumstix board, you can run that executable

# cd /tmp/sprinkle

# ./HelloWorld
HelloWorld!
#

You might get errors here. It either means that your crosscompiler is built wrong, it was configured wrong, the test code was configured wrong, the kernel was chosen wrong...anyway, that's what we're here for!

Notes on building the crosscompilers with Cygwin

Cygwin may fail in the entire build for the buildroot project, yet succeed in building the crosscompiler. While this may make you feel dirty inside, it is good enough for our purposes to have the crosscompiler that we want. The kernel which exists on the machine currently is good enough for our purposes, so we go with that.

   
 
Last modified 6 March, 2006
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