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Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Real-Time Systems
Holger Giese, Gabor Karsai, Edward A. Lee, Bernhard Rumpe, Bernhard Schätz

Citation
Holger Giese, Gabor Karsai, Edward A. Lee, Bernhard Rumpe, Bernhard Schätz. "Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Real-Time Systems". Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 6100, 2010.

Abstract
The topic of "Model-Based Engineering of Real-Time Embedded Systems" brings together a challenging problem domain (real-time embedded systems) and a solution domain (model-based engineering). It is also at the forefront of integrated software and systems engineering, as software in this problem domain is an essential tool for system implementation and integration. Today, real-time embedded software plays a crucial role in most advanced technical systems such as airplanes, mobile phones, and cars, and has become the main driver and facilitator for innovation. Development, evolution, verification, configuration, and maintenance of embedded and distributed software nowadays are often serious challenges as drastic increases in complexity can be observed in practice.

Model-based engineering in general, and model-based software development in particular, advocates the notion of using models throughout the development and life-cycle of an engineered system. Model-based software engineering reinforces this notion by promoting models not only as the tool of abstraction, but also as the tool for verification, implementation, testing, and maintenance. The application of such model-based engineering techniques to embedded real-time systems appears to be a good candidate to tackle some of the problems arising in the problem domain.

Model-based development strategies and model-driven automatic code generation are becoming established technologies on the functional level. However, they are mainly applied within a limited scope only. The use of analogous modeling strategies on the system, technical, and configuration levels remains challenging, especially with the increasing shift to networks of systems, tight coupling between the control-engineering oriented and reactive parts of a system, and the growing number of variants introduced by product lines. Specific domain constraints such as real-time requirements, resource limitations, and hardware-specific dependencies often impede the acceptance of standard highlevel modeling techniques and their application. Much effort in industry and academia therefore goes into the adaptation and improvement of object-oriented and component-based methods and model-based engineering that promise to facilitate the development, deployment, and reuse of software components embedded in real-time environments. The model-based development approach for embedded systems and their software proposes application-specific modeling techniques using domain specific concepts (e.g., time-triggered execution or synchronous data flow) to abstract "away" the details of the implementation, such as interrupts or method calls. Furthermore, analytical techniques (e.g., the verification of the completeness of function deployment and consistency of dynamic interface descriptions) and generative techniques (e.g., automatic schedule generation, default behavior generation) can then be applied to the resulting more abstract models to enable the efficient development of high-quality software.

Our Dagstuhl seminar brought together researchers and practitioners from the field of model-based engineering of embedded real-time systems. The topics covered included: frameworks and methods, validation, model-based integration technology, formal modeling of semantics, fault management, concurrency models and models of computation, requirements modeling, formal derivation of designs from requirements, test modeling and model-based test generation, quality assurance, design management, abstractions and extensions, and development techniques and problems of application domains. The broad spectrum of presentations clearly illustrate the prevalence of model-based techniques in the embedded systems area, as well as progress in the field.

This volume is a collection of long and short papers that survey the state of the art in model-based development of real-time embedded systems. It is composed of longer chapters that cover broad areas and short papers that discuss specific tools. The chapters are organized into sections as follows:

- Foundations: The chapters in this section survey general models of reactive systems, techniques, and approaches for model-based integration, and modeling and simulation of real-time applications.

- Language Engineering: The chapters here review metamodeling as a fundamental tool, the methods for specifying the semantics of models for dynamic behavior, and the requirements for modeling languages for real-time embedded systems.

- Domain-Specific Issues: Relevant issues of real-time embedded systems are discussed in this section, including the use of model-based techniques for safety-critical software, and analysis and development approaches to dependable systems.

- Life-Cycle Issues: These chapters discuss requirements modeling techniques for embedded systems, and the technology for model evolution and management The short papers provide a state-of-the-art survey of existing tools that are being used in the model-based engineering of embedded real-time systems. Finally, we would like to thank all authors and contributors to the project without whom such a large and complex project could not have been completed. It has been made possible by several researchers who supported the organizers and kept things going. In particular, we have to thank Claas Pinkernell, Markus Look, and Sven B¨urger for their assistance in compiling this book. Thanks also goes to the Dagstuhl organization staff members who always make our meetings there a unique event.

Electronic downloads

Citation formats  
  • HTML
    Holger Giese, Gabor Karsai, Edward A. Lee, Bernhard Rumpe,
    Bernhard Schätz. <a
    href="http://chess.eecs.berkeley.edu/pubs/847.html"
    ><i>Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Real-Time
    Systems</i></a>, Lecture Notes in Computer
    Science, Springer, 6100, 2010.
  • Plain text
    Holger Giese, Gabor Karsai, Edward A. Lee, Bernhard Rumpe,
    Bernhard Schätz. "Model-Based
    Engineering of Embedded Real-Time Systems". Lecture
    Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 6100, 2010.
  • BibTeX
    @book{GieseKarsaiLeeRumpeSchtz10_ModelBasedEngineeringOfEmbeddedRealTimeSystems,
        author = {Holger Giese and Gabor Karsai and Edward A. Lee
                  and Bernhard Rumpe and Bernhard Schätz},
        title = {Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Real-Time
                  Systems},
        series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
        publisher = {Springer},
        volume = {6100},
        year = {2010},
        abstract = {The topic of "Model-Based Engineering of Real-Time
                  Embedded Systems" brings together a challenging
                  problem domain (real-time embedded systems) and a
                  solution domain (model-based engineering). It is
                  also at the forefront of integrated software and
                  systems engineering, as software in this problem
                  domain is an essential tool for system
                  implementation and integration. Today, real-time
                  embedded software plays a crucial role in most
                  advanced technical systems such as airplanes,
                  mobile phones, and cars, and has become the main
                  driver and facilitator for innovation.
                  Development, evolution, verification,
                  configuration, and maintenance of embedded and
                  distributed software nowadays are often serious
                  challenges as drastic increases in complexity can
                  be observed in practice. <p>Model-based
                  engineering in general, and model-based software
                  development in particular, advocates the notion of
                  using models throughout the development and
                  life-cycle of an engineered system. Model-based
                  software engineering reinforces this notion by
                  promoting models not only as the tool of
                  abstraction, but also as the tool for
                  verification, implementation, testing, and
                  maintenance. The application of such model-based
                  engineering techniques to embedded real-time
                  systems appears to be a good candidate to tackle
                  some of the problems arising in the problem
                  domain. <p>Model-based development strategies and
                  model-driven automatic code generation are
                  becoming established technologies on the
                  functional level. However, they are mainly applied
                  within a limited scope only. The use of analogous
                  modeling strategies on the system, technical, and
                  configuration levels remains challenging,
                  especially with the increasing shift to networks
                  of systems, tight coupling between the
                  control-engineering oriented and reactive parts of
                  a system, and the growing number of variants
                  introduced by product lines. Specific domain
                  constraints such as real-time requirements,
                  resource limitations, and hardware-specific
                  dependencies often impede the acceptance of
                  standard highlevel modeling techniques and their
                  application. Much effort in industry and academia
                  therefore goes into the adaptation and improvement
                  of object-oriented and component-based methods and
                  model-based engineering that promise to facilitate
                  the development, deployment, and reuse of software
                  components embedded in real-time environments. The
                  model-based development approach for embedded
                  systems and their software proposes
                  application-specific modeling techniques using
                  domain specific concepts (e.g., time-triggered
                  execution or synchronous data flow) to abstract
                  "away" the details of the implementation, such as
                  interrupts or method calls. Furthermore,
                  analytical techniques (e.g., the verification of
                  the completeness of function deployment and
                  consistency of dynamic interface descriptions) and
                  generative techniques (e.g., automatic schedule
                  generation, default behavior generation) can then
                  be applied to the resulting more abstract models
                  to enable the efficient development of
                  high-quality software. <p>Our Dagstuhl seminar
                  brought together researchers and practitioners
                  from the field of model-based engineering of
                  embedded real-time systems. The topics covered
                  included: frameworks and methods, validation,
                  model-based integration technology, formal
                  modeling of semantics, fault management,
                  concurrency models and models of computation,
                  requirements modeling, formal derivation of
                  designs from requirements, test modeling and
                  model-based test generation, quality assurance,
                  design management, abstractions and extensions,
                  and development techniques and problems of
                  application domains. The broad spectrum of
                  presentations clearly illustrate the prevalence of
                  model-based techniques in the embedded systems
                  area, as well as progress in the field. <p>This
                  volume is a collection of long and short papers
                  that survey the state of the art in model-based
                  development of real-time embedded systems. It is
                  composed of longer chapters that cover broad areas
                  and short papers that discuss specific tools. The
                  chapters are organized into sections as follows:
                  <p> - Foundations: The chapters in this section
                  survey general models of reactive systems,
                  techniques, and approaches for model-based
                  integration, and modeling and simulation of
                  real-time applications. <p> - Language
                  Engineering: The chapters here review metamodeling
                  as a fundamental tool, the methods for specifying
                  the semantics of models for dynamic behavior, and
                  the requirements for modeling languages for
                  real-time embedded systems. <p> - Domain-Specific
                  Issues: Relevant issues of real-time embedded
                  systems are discussed in this section, including
                  the use of model-based techniques for
                  safety-critical software, and analysis and
                  development approaches to dependable systems. <p>
                  - Life-Cycle Issues: These chapters discuss
                  requirements modeling techniques for embedded
                  systems, and the technology for model evolution
                  and management The short papers provide a
                  state-of-the-art survey of existing tools that are
                  being used in the model-based engineering of
                  embedded real-time systems. Finally, we would like
                  to thank all authors and contributors to the
                  project without whom such a large and complex
                  project could not have been completed. It has been
                  made possible by several researchers who supported
                  the organizers and kept things going. In
                  particular, we have to thank Claas Pinkernell,
                  Markus Look, and Sven B¨urger for their
                  assistance in compiling this book. Thanks also
                  goes to the Dagstuhl organization staff members
                  who always make our meetings there a unique event.},
        URL = {http://chess.eecs.berkeley.edu/pubs/847.html}
    }
    

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